The ‘Receptors’ library includes modules for calculation of radionuclide transfer and redistribution process in different types of receptor environments, such as different types of lands (crop lands, pasture lands, forests, uncultivated lands etc.), buildings, surface water bodies (lakes and rivers), and near-shore (coastal) marine environment.
|This module simulates the contaminated land where exposure of individual can occur by external irradiation from radionuclides deposited on the soil, inhalation of radionuclides in the air and due to inadvertent ingestion of contaminated soil. The implemented radiecological model dynamically simulates vertical distribution of radionuclides in soil profile (consisting of “top” and “deep” zone compartments), and it accounts for losses from the soil through erosion, bio-turbation (using diffusion-type transfer models) and leaching processes [SKB, 1999]. The model calculates the concentration of radionuclides in soil, as well as concentration of radionuclides in outdoor air due to resuspension from soil.
|This module considers exposure pathways associated with cultivation of agricultural plants in a cropland. The model simulates dynamically vertical distribution of radionuclides in the soil profile (consisting of “top” and “deep” zones), and it estimates radionuclide concentrations in crops using the transfer factor approach [IAEA, 2010]. The model takes into account input of radionuclides through deposition from the atmosphere and irrigation with contaminated water, and losses of radionuclides from the system through erosion, bio-turbation and leaching processes [SKB, 1999].
|This module is designed for assessing exposures by ingestion of fruits, vegetables, potatoes and other foods produced in a garden plot. The garden plot can be contaminated via deposition of radionuclides from the atmosphere and/or by irrigation with contaminated water. The mathematical approach for this model is generally similar to the ‘cropland’ model described above, while the foodstuff types and radioecological parameters are model-specific.
|This module considers exposure pathways associated with ingestion of meat and milk obtained from livestock grazing on a pastureland. The model accounts for inputs of radionuclides to the pastureland by deposition from the atmosphere and by irrigation with contaminated water. The mathematical approach for this model is generally similar to the ‘cropland’ model described above, while it also accounts for radionuclide transfers to the livestock due to ingestion of contaminated forage and water using the transfer factor approach.
|This module covers exposure pathways related to utilizing a forest as a source of food. The model dynamically simulates the vertical distribution of radionuclides in soil profile (consisting of “top” and “deep” zone compartments) and radionuclide concentrations in the tree (leaves, tree wood, understory, litter compartments) and forest food species (berries, mushrooms and game animals) [SKB, 2006]. The model takes into account input of radionuclides through deposition from the atmosphere, and it accounts for losses from the soil by leaching processes.
|The module covers exposure pathways associated with utilizing of the water body (lakes, rivers and streams) as a source of drinking water, as a source of aquatic foods, as well as for recreational activities such as swimming and boating. The water body can receive radionuclides from the atmosphere through deposition, through runoff from the adjacent catchment area, as well as by direct discharges from a source of aquatic releases of radioactivity (e.g., from industrial source such as NPP). The model dynamically simulates distribution of radionuclides in abiotic media such as water, suspended particulate matter and sediments (consisting of “top” and “deep” compartments) and biotic media such as fish and other edible freshwater organisms (using transfer factor approach). The implemented model is based on ‘LAKE’ model described in [SKB, 1999].
|This module is applicable for sea coastal areas that might receive radionuclides deposited from the atmosphere on the sea water surface, as well as direct radionuclide discharges to water from a source of aquatic releases. The model covers exposure pathways associated with the use of a sea coastal area (“inner” water compartment) as a source of food, as well as for recreational activities such as swimming and boating. The model dynamically simulates distribution of radionuclides in abiotic media such as water (“inner” sea compartment), suspended particulate matter and sediments (“top” and “deep” sediment compartments) and biotic media (fish and other edible sea organisms; using transfer factor approach).
Improvements to the second version of module include: (1) possibility for user to choose between two alternative models for activity accumulation in the beach sediments, and (2) calculation of the dust and suspended sea spray concentration in the air of the beach (allowing assessing of inhalation exposure pathway at the beach)
|This module is used for assessment of indoor air concentrations of radionuclides (including radon). Radionuclides enter house due to exchange with outdoor air. Radon enters house due to diffusion through basement slab, and its concentration is calculate using mathematical expression accounting for inflow from basement (by diffusive flux) and ventilation by outdoor air.
|This module calculates radionuclide concentration in the groundwater extracted by well. It employs simple mixing model for contaminated groundwater migrating from the source (e.g., output of “Aquifer” transport module) and non-contaminated groundwater with “background” concentration.